|Вы два раза услышите пять высказываний, обозначенных буквами А, В, С, D, Е. Установите соответствие между высказываниями и утверждениями из следующего списка: к каждому высказыванию подберите соответствующее утверждение, обозначенное цифрами. Используйте каждое утверждение из списка 1–6 только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение.|
|Вы услышите разговор двух друзей. В заданиях 3–8 в поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.|
|Вы проводите информационный поиск в ходе выполнения проектной работы. Определите, в каком из текстов A–F содержатся ответы на интересующие Вас вопросы 1–7. Один из вопросов останется без ответа. Занесите Ваши ответы в таблицу.|
|1.||What other necessary things had to be done to start operating the Channel Tunnel?|
|2.||Why didn’t the British support the first project of the Channel Tunnel?|
|3.||How many tunnels does the project actually contain?|
|4.||What are the safety tips while travelling through the Channel Tunnel?|
|5.||What are the possible ways for a passenger to travel through the Channel Tunnel?|
|6.||Why is the Channel Tunnel considered to be a great engineering achievement?|
|7.||What was the most difficult task in constructing the Channel Tunnel?|
|A.||The Channel Tunnel (or Channel) is a long tunnel between England and France under the English Channel. The section under the sea is 38km long and the entire length is 50.5km. At its lowest point it is 75 metres deep. The Channel Tunnel is the longest undersea tunnel in the world. The tunnel was recognised as one of the ‘Seven Wonders of the Modern World’ by the American Society of Engineers.|
|B.||For centuries, crossing the English Channel via boat had been considered a miserable task. The windy weather and choppy water made travellers seasick. So, in 1802, French engineer Albert Favier was the first person who proposed to dig a tunnel under the water of the channel. Favier’s plan was adopted by French leader Napoleon Bonaparte. But the British rejected the plan. They feared that Napoleon wanted to build the tunnel in order to invade England.|
|C.||At the end of the 20th century the idea was revived. The digging of the Channel Tunnel began simultaneously from the British and the French coasts. The greatest challenge was making sure that both the British side of the tunnel and the French side actually met up in the middle. Special lasers and surveying equipment were used. On December 1, 1990, the meeting of the two sides was officially celebrated. For the first time in history, Great Britain and France were connected.|
|D.||Although the meeting of the two sides of the service tunnel was a cause for great celebration, it certainly wasn’t the end of the Channel Tunnel building project. Crossover tunnels, land tunnels from the coast to the terminals, electrical systems, fireproof doors, the ventilation system and train tracks all had to be added. Also, large train terminals had to be built at Folkestone in Great Britain and Coquelles in France.|
|E.||It took 13,000 engineers and technicians to construct the Channel Tunnel. In fact, there are two running tunnels, one each way. Additionally, there is a smaller service tunnel with a crossover in the middle, so in case there’s an emergency, the trains can actually change to either side. It is wrong to call it a tunnel as there are actually three tunnels. The tunnels are about 50 meters below the seabed.|
|F.||If you want to use the tunnel, you have got a choice. You can either go on a passenger train, the Eurostar, which departs from London, Paris and Brussels city centres. Or you can go on the drive-on service, called the Eurotunnel Shuttle, starting close to the tunnel entrance where you drive your car or truck onto special rail cars.|
|Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений 10–17 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). В поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа.|
Two sports brands
The small town in Bavaria is very famous in Germany, because there is the home of the Dassler brothers. They started two well-known sports brands: Adidas and Puma. But their story is not about peace, it’s about war, disagreement and competition.
In 1924 Adolf and Rudolf started making shoes and soon had a small shoe business. The elder brother, Rudolf (or Rudi), was a veteran of World War I. He was a good businessman and knew how to sell things. The younger brother, Adolf (or Adi) was more thoughtful and creative. The brothers had 25 workers at the factory and they made 100 pairs of sports shoes every day.
During the 1936 Olympics, Adi Dassler drove to the Olympic village with a suitcase full of sports shoes. He asked an American sprinter Jesse Owens to wear and run in them. Owens won 4 gold medals and at once the Dassler shoes became popular. The Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II.
We don’t know much about their lives at the time of World War II. However, in the 1940s they refused to work together any more. Rudolf left the company, moved to the other bank of the river and started a competing shop there. At first he wanted to name his company Ruda, but then he thought about a graceful, quick animal – the puma. And so Puma was born.
Adi stayed with family business and renamed the company Adidas. He developed the 3-stripe logo in 1941 and registered it as Adidas’ brand. Adi wanted to make a symbol that could be easily recognized by other people and three stripes was a good idea. The stripes show a mountain. You have to climb it if you want to reach the peak or achieve anything.
The serious conflict between the brothers divided the town into two: the Adidas bank and the Puma bank of the river. It was like a silent war. Only the bravest people could wear their Puma shoes and cross the river to the Adidas side of the town. When people met in the street, they first looked down at each other’s shoes. It helped them to decide if that person was an enemy or a friend. What’s more, Puma people didn’t marry Adidas people. There were Adidas and Puma schools, pubs, shops, restaurants and hotels.
The brothers never became friendly again or even spoke to each other. Rudi died in 1974 and left Puma to his son. The family sold the company in 1989. Adi died in 1978, his son was the head of Adidas till his death in 1987. Today Puma is controlled by a big French company and Adidas is owned by a number of companies.
The “war” was declared completely over in 2009. Employees and workers of both companies shook hands and then played a football match in the Bavarian town of Herzogenaurach. The match was the first joint event for the two companies since 1948. The match ended 7–5 but the teams were not divided into Adidas and Puma. Each team was a mix of Adidas and Puma players.
|Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 17–25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию 17–25.|
|Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26–31, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию 26–31.|