|Прослушайте 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего 1–6 и утверждениями, данными в списке A–G. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей буквой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.|
A. I am sure that wise attitude to basic earth supplies is necessary.
B. I find many simple ways to help our planet in everyday life.
C. I am for the use of energy saving practices in house construction.
D. I do not want my family to live in polluted environment.
E. I am afraid of the after-effects of human activities.
F. I would like to see new energy saving laws introduced.
G. I feel unhappy because I can’t change public attitude to our planet.
|Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А–G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.|
|Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3–9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.|
|Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.|
|2||The longest on Earth|
|4||Designing a building|
|5||Invented by accident|
|7||How did they do it?|
|8||Why seasons change|
|A||Most of Africa’s rural peoples use natural resources that are locally available for their homes. In grasslands, people typically use grass to cover the walls and roofs. In forested areas, they use hardwoods as well as bamboo and raffia palm. Earth and clay are also major resources used in construction. In areas with few natural resources, people often live as nomads, moving from place to place. Instead of making permanent homes, they usually use simple shelters or tents made of animal skins and woven hair.|
|B||An architect must consider how a structure will be used and by whom. An apartment building, a palace, a hospital, a museum, an airport, and a sports arena all have different construction requirements. Another factor is the ideas the structure should communicate. For example, some buildings are made to impress people with a display of power and wealth; others – to make everyone feel welcome. Other things to consider are the location and surrounding environment, including weather, and the cost of materials.|
|C||Did you know that an eleven-year-old child first created the Popsicle? The boy’s name was Frank Epperson. In 1905, Frank left a mixture of water and powdered soda out on his porch by mistake. It also contained a stir stick. That night, fortunately for Frank, the temperatures fell to a record low. As a result, he discovered the substance had frozen to the stick, and a frozen fruit flavoured ice treat was created. He decided to call it the epsicle, which was later patented by him and named as Popsicle.|
|D||As Earth goes around the sun, the North Pole points to the same direction in space. For about six months every year, the North Pole is tilted towards the sun. During this time, the Northern Hemisphere gets more direct sunlight than the Southern Hemisphere and more hours of daylight. During the other six months, the North Pole is tilted away from the sun. When the Northern Hemisphere gets the most sunlight, it experiences spring and summer. At the same time, the Southern Hemisphere gets autumn and winter.|
|E||In southern Peru, there is an isolated plateau where the wind almost never blows. Here, around the year 400 to 650 AD, the people of the Nazca culture created the famous Nazca lines, by removing the red stones covering the ground so that the white earth beneath was visible. These Nazca lines are actually portraits of animals such as monkeys, birds or fish. It is a mystery how such a primitive civilization could create such artwork with precision when they had no means of viewing their work from the air.|
|F||Antarctica, which is the southernmost and fifth largest continent, does not have twenty-four-hour periods divided into days and nights. In the South Pole, the sun rises on about September 21 and moves in a circular path until it sets on about March 22. This “day”, or summer, is six months long. During this period, if the weather conditions are good, the sun can be seen twenty-four hours a day. From March 22 until September 21, the South Pole is dark, and Antarctica has its “night”, or winter.|
|G||Any ship that hits an iceberg can be damaged. The most famous iceberg in history sank the “Titanic”, a ship travelling in the northern Atlantic Ocean, on April 15, 1912. The ship’s side scraped the iceberg, which tore holes in the hull. Within three hours, the ship was at the bottom of the ocean. After the loss of the “Titanic”, several nations worked together to establish the International Ice Patrol. Today the U.S. Coast Guard runs the patrol, which warns ships about icebergs floating in Atlantic shipping routes.|
|Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.|
Russia is famous for its diversity, as well as its hospitality. The best way to show Russia to someone is to bring home something special. Matryoshka and balalaika are quite stereotypical presents. There are many other goods A_______________________. Woolen shawls have always been popular in Russia because of cold winters. The shawls made in Pavlovsky Posad, B_______________________, are considered to be traditional Russian gift. Woolen shawls and scarves have been made there since 1795. A wide shawl with a beautiful original pattern on it may be used like a blanket. It is nice to cover oneself up with it sitting in the armchair, watching a movie, C_______________________. The Pavlovsky Posad manufacture produces scarves for men as well. They can be bought through the Internet, or in brand stores, D_______________________. Belyovskaya pastila is a souvenir E_______________________. It has been made since the 19th century in the town of Belyov near Tula. This is a very special kind of Russian confection. Though it is called “pastila”, it is not a marshmallow style delicacy. Belyovskaya pastila is made of dried apples. After they have been dried, they are mixed with egg whites and sugar and whipped. Belyovskaya pastila is similar to a cake, F_______________________ of apples. It is considered to be a natural product, and it is not of average price. Tourists can buy this kind of sweet at some confectioner’s shops throughout Moscow.
- that one may buy in Moscow as a souvenir
- which are situated in the centre of Moscow
- that pleases the people with a sweet tooth
- although it has a slightly sour taste
- which is a town not very far from Moscow
- riding a bike around the villages in Russia
- reading a book, or drinking coffee or tea
|Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.|
For almost 125 years, the secrecy surrounding the recipe for Coca-Cola has been one of the world’s great marketing tricks. As the story goes, the fizzy drink’s famous ‘7X’ formula has remained unchanged since it was developed in 1886. Today, the recipe is entrusted only to two Coke executives, neither of whom can travel on the same plane for fear the secret would go down with them.
Now, one of America’s most celebrated radio broadcasters claims to have discovered the Coke secret. Ira Glass, presenter of the public radio institution This American Life, says he has tracked down a copy of the recipe, the original of which is still supposedly held in a burglar-proof vault at the Sun Trust Bank in Atlanta, Georgia.
The formula was created by John Pemberton, an Atlanta chemist and former Confederate army officer who crafted cough medicines in his spare time. In 1887, he sold the recipe to a businessman, Asa Griggs, who immediately placed it for safekeeping in the Georgia Trust Bank.
Glass came across a recipe that he believes is the secret formula in a back issue of Pemberton’s local paper, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, while he was researching an entirely different story. Tucked away on an inside page of the 8 February 1979 edition, he stumbled on an article that claimed to have uncovered the closely guarded 7X formula.
The column was based on information found in an old leather-bound notebook that belonged to Pemberton’s best friend and fellow Atlanta chemist, RR Evans. Glass was intrigued and, after some digging, found that the notebook had been handed down over generations until it reached a chemist in Georgia called Everett Beal, whose widow still possesses it.
The rediscovered recipe includes extract of coca leaves, caffeine, plenty of sugar (it specifies 30 unidentified units thought to be pounds), lime juice, vanilla and caramel. Into that syrup, the all-important 7X ingredients are added: alcohol and six oils – orange, lemon, nutmeg, coriander, neroli and cinnamon. The formula is very similar to the recipe worked out by Mark Pendergrast who wrote a history of the drink in 1993 called For God, Country & Coca-Cola.
Coke’s secret recipe is, in fact, partly a myth. The soda has changed substantially over time. Cocaine, a legal stimulant in Pemberton’s day, was removed from the drink in 1904 after mounting public unease about the drug. Extract of coca leaves is still used but only after the cocaine has been removed.
In 1980, the company replaced sugar, squeezed from beet and cane, with the cheaper corn sweetener that is often found in American food and drink. Coke fans were not impressed.
Despite such occasional controversies, one element has remained constant: Coke’s commitment to keeping its own secret. Speculation about the recipe has been a popular talking point for more than a century, proving good for business. The company has reacted to the This American Life story in a way that has been typical of its commercial strategy since the 19th century. “Many third parties have tried to crack our secret formula. Try as they might, they’ve been unsuccessful,” Coca-Cola’s Kerry Tressler said.
|Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19–25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19–25.|
|Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26–31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26–31.|
|Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32–38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32–38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.|
Henry Thompson, a writer, built a hut on the shore of the pond and lived there all alone for two years. He did this for two reasons: because he wanted to 32_______________ that people spend too much time and money on food and clothes and because he wanted a perfectly quiet chance to write more books. 33______________ to the writer, he spent only one hundred dollars a year while he lived in this hut. He raised beans on his land, ate wild berries, caught fish and “went visiting” his friends and neighbours now and then. To buy his woodsman’s clothes and a few necessities, he planted gardens, painted houses, and cut wood for his friends. This period influenced Henry’s creative work a lot. He wrote a book called “The Wood” which 34_______________ us all about these seven or eight hundred days he lived in his hut. Several other books also describe the time when he 35_________________ to live all by himself. These sold very well. In all of them Henry was boasting that he had found the only sensible way to live. “I am for simple living, and I 36______________ being alone!” he would declare in his books. He 37___________ you feel, when you read his books, that it is fine to walk around the fields, sniffing the wild grape and the green grass, and that no one can find pleasure like the man who rows, and skates, and swims. 38_____________, people passing by the pond used to hear him whistling old ballads, or playing very softly and beautifully on a flute, and they thought he sounded lonely and sad.
При выполнении заданий 32-38 вам поможет:
You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Peter who writes:
…Reading books is my favourite pastime. Is reading important to you? Why? How do you like to spend your leisure time? What is your parents’ attitude to your hobbies and interests?
Yesterday was my father’s birthday…
Write a letter to Peter.
In your letter:
− answer his questions;
− ask 3 questions about his father’s birthday.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний (40.1 или 40.2), укажите его номер в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2 и выразите своё мнение
по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.
Comment on one of the following statements.
40.1 Education is the most valuable thing for a teenager.
40.2 Robots will soon replace people in all jobs.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
– make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
– express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
– express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing
– explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
– make a conclusion restating your position.
Удачи на экзамене!